Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Retirement Revamping Essay -- essays research papers fc

Standardized savings is a significant worry in American culture today. Standardized savings initially began in 1935 under President Roosevelt when he marked the Social Security Act that furnished the older with ensured retirement salary. In 1939, benefits for companions, subordinate offspring of retirees, and overcomers of laborers who kick the bucket before retirement were actualized by congress. In the 1950’s, impaired laborers were additionally given advantages. Presently days, Social Security is under examination. Assets are draining, and Social Security needs some genuine patching up. Numerous arrangements have approached, however the most serviceable arrangement is to make privatized speculation accounts that permit people to have more impact over their own cash for retirement. (Weisman) In 2000, $402 billion dollars were spent to give more than 45 million individuals profits by Social Security. 63%, or $348 billion dollars, went to resigned laborers while the other 37%, or $54 billion dollars, was dispersed among handicapped specialists and their families. Starting at 1950, there were 16 individuals paying Social Security charges to each one retiree getting benefits. Presently, the proportion is at a horrid 3.4 citizens to each one beneficiary. (Clayton) Projectionists are stating that with the current charges and the present spending, more cash will be paid out than acquired constantly 2016. Truth be told, some state the shortfall will arrive at numbers totaling $17.4 billion of every 2016. Progressively finished, if this pattern proceeds, obligation will reach $99 billion continuously 2020 and $271 billion out of 2030; projections show that supports will be totally evaporated by 2038 if nothing has still been finished. (Weisman) Market analysts have a few unique recommendations for how to fix the issue. Some state that people ought to have full oversight over their cash to put resources into the financial exchange as they pick. They see putting some of Social Security in the market as the best way to kill the shortage. They state the deficiency will before long increment with the people born after WW2 age prepared to resign in the following 12 years, and they accept the market is the country’s best wagered to keep Social Security above water. (Weisman) Others accept that only a couple of minor modifications are expected to fix the issue. Thoughts, for example, the raising of greatest wages subject to a finance assessment and putting 15% of Social Security’s surplus in stocks, have been proposed to consolidate in the guide of killing the de... ...e executed in the more youthful American age. This will spare government managed savings for its future beneficiaries and make a superior establishment for the forthcoming age. The truth is, Social Security will change, and it must change or, in all likelihood retirement for all will stop to exist. Works Cited Clayton, Gary E. Financial aspects Principles and Practices. Columbus, OH: Glencoe McGraw      Hill. 2003. Feldstein, Martin. â€Å"Privatizing Social Security: The $10 Trillion Opportunity.† Social Security Privatization. 11 Nov. 2004. . Ferrara, Peter. â€Å"A Plan For Privatizing Social Security.† Social Security Privatization. 11 Nov. 2004. . Ferrara, Peter. â€Å"The Failed Critique of Personal Accounts.† 8 Oct. 2001. 11 Nov. 2004. . Orszag, Peter R. â€Å"Costs of Voluntary Individual Accounts for Social Security.† 5 May 2000.â â â â â 15 Nov. 2004. Rechtman, Yigal. â€Å"The Idea of Privatization.† Social Security and Privatization. 11 Nov. 2004 â€Å"Strengthening Social Security.† The White House. 11 Nov. 2004  â â â â Weisman, Jonathan. â€Å"Bush Pushes for Overhaul; Others Say Go Slow, If at all†. USA      Today.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Training and Development of Brac Bank free essay sample

As each organization has some encased data, we got a similar reaction from BRAC Bank true to form. ? Because of an exceptionally close timetable of the HR Manager, we were unable to get all the data in detail. ? As HR is an extremely classified unit of the organization, it would not share inside data about this division as well. ? As he educated us concerning the preparation procedure, some significant issues and data are not talked about in the report. 1. 9 Managerial chain of importance: [pic] Chapter 2 Selection: The choice procedure begins when the BRAC bank authority begins arrangement to take meet. The choice procedure for inside up-and-comers outside competitors are extraordinary. At the point when bank authority scans for inner competitors, they simply make short-rundown of the applicants who satisfy the models of the activity the power believe that, this individual might be appropriate for this position. Here, it is to advise that, inward workers need to have the consent of his/her boss to apply for a post. We will compose a custom exposition test on Preparing and Development of Brac Bank or then again any comparative point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page At that point, their CV is reviewed again short-recorded. These short-recorded workers are told for viva. They don’t need to give composed as in light of the fact that they have just been chosen once. Kinds of tests: For inner employment applicants, the bank readies a viva board comprising three individuals. One is from the necessary division, one is from the activity another is from HR office. They tests three kinds of capacity of an up-and-comers. a) Job information: As the up-and-comers are as of now existing individual from the bank, they should have some information about the bank. The duties, condition, rules guidelines are additionally asked in this part. b) Communication abilities: In this part, the bank takes a gander at how the applicants can speak with different workers. ) Judgment aptitudes: To know the education, quickness of the work systematic capacity, the bank pose inquiry about scientific or basic inquiry. For instance: they need to recruit a records director. They asked him that, his compensation would be 20,000 Tk. In the event that I give 8,000 Tk. in 500 Tk. note the rest in 100 Tk. note, what number of 500 100 notes will be there? The quicker the competitor addresses the inquiry the quicker is scholarly. After the test, the chose up-and-comers are sent to â€Å"Medinova† for their clinical test. BRAC bank has 4-5 clinical tests for them. They need to do the test with their own cash. At that point, an offer letter is sent to the individuals who are medicinally fit. Previous existence investigation: There is a hole in the middle of giving an offer letter joining letter. Meanwhile, the organization breaks down the chose candidate’s previous existence, scholarly endorsements, references. They likewise break down the KPI of the individual applicants which shows the exhibition capacity that the individual needs to make a specific showing. In the event that anything is discovered wrong, the worker is ended from the activity. 1. Outside up-and-comers: For the outer competitors, the bank has three kind of determination process for three distinct sorts of level. ) Entry level situations: For the section level position, the bank for the most part lean towards outside up-and-comers. At the point when they locate an enormous number of uses for the activity, they start to drilling down the applications that satisfy their prerequisites. At that point they call them for a composed assessment. The assessment is taken on MCQ it takes 60 minutes. The composed test contains English language, arithmetic some explanatory capacities. At that point assessing their test paper, the competitors are again short-recorded then they are required a viva. There they are posed inquiries to know their capacity information. For the most part, they are taken inclination test, knowledge test accomplishment test. The chose up-and-comers here again sent to Medi-nova for their clinical test at last the individuals who can cross the whole ropeway are given offer letter. At that point their previous existence investigation go on later, the powerful evident competitors are given joining letter. The procedure in short can be depicted like beneath: [pic] b) Mid-level situation: For mid level positions, the bank inclines toward direct fundamental meeting. In the meeting, they ask work related inquiries. From them, they select worker send them into second meeting. After that they have last meeting in which they faces the governing body. On the off chance that they can make them intrigue, they are the recently joined mid level supervisors. c) Top level situation: For the top level positions, the bank takes help of head trackers. The head tracker gives the resumes of intrigued representatives after that they are required a viva. The viva board comprises of AVP, VP, MD two senior individual from the leading body of chief. Section 3 â€Å"Training and improvement Process of BRAC Bank† The preparation and advancement procedure of BRAC bank is separated into three sections. They are: †¢ Orientation preparing †¢ Job explicit preparing †¢ Need base preparing BRAC Bank Training Orientation Job explicit Need base Training preparing Orientation preparing: Orientation preparing is the preparation for the fresh blood. We found that this preparation is fundamentally given to cause representatives to become accustomed to the earth, system, strategies, association objective; working procedure and so on. The preparation framework for this sort of preparing can be separated into certain parts. In the wake of getting chosen member list, the bank plans the provisional preparing plan for four phases. They are: †¢ Induction preparing †¢ Core banking preparing Dept connection preparing †¢ Dept connection preparing assessment †¢ Mock test Then they speak with assets and separate offices as needs be. After they speak with GA (general organization and IS for all calculated help. This progression will be followed assortment of preparing notes and perusing materials from asset individual. Let’s get somewhat illustrative on these focuses: Induction: This part is finished in 1 day. The enlistment procedure is partitioned into two meetings. From the start, all the fresher workers are accumulated in a meeting room or corridor room and afterward they are presented and invited in the association. At that point they are told about the historical backdrop of the association, the way of life, the significance of the way of life, the point and vision of the association, the responsibility of the workers, etc. After that a brief break is given for refreshment. While this break, experienced workers kind of make a well disposed condition to release up the pressure and anxiety of the fresher. We found that the target of this progression is to make fresher representatives think about the association, their partners with the goal that they don’t feel awkward when the person in question will return to their workplace. Another rationale behind this program is to urge them to put their greatest duty for the association. Center financial preparing: The center financial arrangement of BRAC bank is controlled by programming named â€Å"Finacle†. This product controls the center banking of the BRAC bank. The representative needs to realize how to work this product. Else, he can't be locked in with banking arrangement of this bank. That is the reason after acceptance process workers are taken to BRAC bank preparing focus and they are instructed how to utilize this product. It is educated in PC labs where teacher shows representatives how to utilize this product. The demo of this product is utilized for this reason. We found that the goal of this preparation framework is to make workers learned about this product which is the core of banking for BRAC bank. Division connection preparing: BRAC bank apportions a multi day preparing for this reason. That is to say, a worker has the chance to watch their own area of expertise. With this preparation the person in question will have the option to become familiar with their activity duty, depiction, associates, etc. We found this is the procedure each bank uses to prepare their workers. It is extremely customary and powerful strategy. Here, worker is allowed the chance to watch their specialty for certain days. The greatest favorable position of this preparation framework is the expense is exceptionally low and gives the representatives genuine chance to know their work and get suit with the earth the person in question is working in. Notwithstanding that the person gets an opportunity to know their activity obligation also. Office connection preparing assessment: In this stage an assessment is held to assess the worker whether the individual in question can watch their specialty appropriately or not. An employee’s own specialization is in control for this assessment. There is sure imprint to be gotten to pass. On the off chance that a representative can't gain that mark, at that point the person in question will be given an opportunity again to watch their area of expertise for barely any more days. After that the individual in question will be reviewed to accomplish this test. On the off chance that she or he again neglects to get that mark, the organization will fire him thinking about that the person isn't egger to learn and can't satisfy their activity duty. After the consummation of this preparation, the individual in question will show up for the fake test. Mock test: This preparation framework is acquired from remote nations. In our nation, just BRAC bank offers this preparation framework. This technique is held fundamentally in preparing focus however once in a while branch workplaces offer this procedure on Saturday. Here, among fresher workers, each representative will play out some differently assigned places of BRAC bank. The accomplished representatives will go about as clients and will be requesting various types of administrations from them. Our finding through this procedure is that fresher will be investigated profoundly through experienced workers. The conduct, working limits, working duty of the representatives is checked in this procedure. Here and there senior workers attempt to drive the representative crazy to perceive how they perform under this tempered circumstance. Basi

Sunday, July 26, 2020

Freshman Fifty-Seven

Freshman Fifty-Seven By now, three full days have passed into my second semester here. The infinite corridor is total chaos as tourists and students battle for placement in the hall, the dining halls are back up and running, and the weight of 4 Psets are setting in. All that being said, I am glad to be back and with a full schedule. Here is a look at how I am keeping busy for the next few months with 57 units of courses: On February 6th, the first day back started. I got up way too early, ate way too much grapefruit, and sat in front of my Real Analysis class (18.100A) for a solid twenty minutes because I showed up too early. Pretty soon, I grabbed a seat, and the instructor came in. The class started right off feeling a lot different from the only other math class I have taken here, 18.02. For starters, I wasn’t in a huge lecture hall filled with hundreds of people. It seems to be a real mix of different year students in there, and I don’t know anyone. I started the first homework assignment last night, and it honestly is pretty satisfying even proving simple limits and stuff that just can be solved by doing a quick glance at it and writing down the answer like in Calc AB. In high school, I always used to bug my math teacher about wanting to have things proved and all, so I definitely like the idea of the class in general of proving all the results although my instructor warns that the proofs ge t annoying. I’m sure I’ll see in the next few weeks. On a good note, I almost finished the Pset. My work looks more like an essay rather than math! Moving on with my classes, the next lecture I attended was 8.03 (Waves and Vibrations). The first lecture was kind of a throwback to AP Physics C: Mechanics, with a little new material on complex numbers. So much Euler for the first day back. The first third of the course or so centers around mechanics, which I will admit is not my favorite. I am really looking forward to the electromagnetic portion and optics. I never have formally learned any optics before, so it will be all new material! In general, it is exciting to take 8.03 as well as 18.100A because both of them are officially out of the GIRs. I am entering classes that are part of my major now, and they feel that way too. I am not really a fan of the big lecture hall 26-100 (If you go here, you’ll know this place, trust me), and I prefer these smaller classes that give a more individualized experience with the professor and recitation leaders. So far, those two courses are my favorite. Although, as I finish this blog post, I am only two lectures deep in both of them, I am certain of my decision in majoring in Course 8 (Physics) as well as Course 18 (Mathematics). Other than these two, 18.03 (differential equations) started off on a very exciting and quite funny note just yesterday. Professor Poonen is our instructor. After reading his CV, you’ll probably have a moment saying, “holy crap” to yourself. He is quite the character. Although the class is in 26-100 and is basically a graduate requirement for over half the school resulting in the huge size of the course, I enjoyed the lecture a lot more than expected. He really brings the life the subject through a very enthusiastic presentation of the material. I can’t finish this discussion without bringing out the awesome fact that he is the guy online with the Big Mouth Conjecture. Finally, I have Chemistry (5.111) and a HASS (humanities course) called Materials in Human Experience (3.094). I took a few years of chemistry in high school, so it seems that the latter portion of the class is very similar to AP Chemistry. However, the first portion, which we are diving into today, is about quantum mechanics. I am excited for this part because my high school chemistry was a lot of AP Chem and organic stuff as well, so it will be a lot of new things. In terms of the Materials class, it is a humanities course with a lab component! Next Tuesday, I will be smelting copper from minerals from 7-10 at night, and it will be my first time doing anything even remotely close to this kind of work. My fingers are crossed that I don’t burn down the school or myself in the process. Overall, this semester seems like it is going to be a lot of new material. Everyone of my subjects, other than chemistry for the most part, is going to be brand new information for me! Other than classes, I decided to stay with my UROP in Biocrude Oil that I wrote a blog post about a while back because we are in the final stages of producing the oil and moving into more interesting components of the applications of our products. Also, my two post docs I am working with and I will be hopefully publishing a paper before the spring semester ends. Next Wednesday as well, I will be going to orientation for a job I got as a Teaching Assistant for TSR^2. TSR^2 is a program run through the Office of Minority Education, and I will be helping help with physics on Pset nights, one-on-one tutoring, and exam reviews. It definitetly will be a busy semester indeed, but I am ready to take it on. Post Tagged #18.02 Multivariable Calculus #18.100 Real Analysis #GIRs #HASS subjects #MIT OME (Office of Minority Education) #TSR^2

Friday, May 22, 2020

William Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet - 1249 Words

Romeo and Juliet Balcony Scene Remake (Act II scene 2) GROUP MEMBERS: Andrea Avendano Alexa Gonzalez Nicole Reyes Maria Schweitzer Brief outline: Twilight themed parody of Romeo and Juliet Characters: Romeo-Edward (Alexa), Juliet-Bella(Maria), Jacob Bella’s Dad(Andrea), Narrator(Nicole) [Enter Edward under Bella’s balcony] Narrator: In this scene just after Bella’s welcoming home party ends, Edward stays behind and climbs Bella’s fence to confess his love for the girl he danced with. At first, Bella has doubts because of Edward s appearance compared to Jacob’s. Bella then notices Jacob in her backyard and tells him to flee just as she confesses her love to Edward as well. As the night grows darker, Bella and Edward continue†¦show more content†¦Her eyes mesmerized me, yet I cannot read her. For thou eyes shine bright like a diamond and gleam beyond the sight of the reddest of bloods. Her gushing cheeks also as red as my corona blood light I drink with every meal I consume. As I stand from below I see those cheeks which seem ever so delicious that my temptation for her blood overpasses her beauty. Bella: Oh gosh! It’s the extremely white guy I danced with at the party, Edward no? Edward: She actually speaks. Oh speak again, you mouthwatering human being! As this restless night falls upon us, I realize I no longer want to be a vampire who sucks the living blood of humans but rather one who endeavors in their love. Bella: Why do you have to be as white as my mom s toothpaste but not as hair as my dad s back, like Jacob. [Enter Jacob howling] Edward: Base your love on more than just my race! For I’m sorry I cannot comply to your hairy needs. Bella: I guess I’ll disregard my lactose intoleranceness to get a sip of that sweet white bod. So take me Edward to be with you and I’ll no longer be a human nor vegan anymore. Jacob (to bella): Rawr! Now you are going to drop all your eating habits for your men. First you tell me you will stop being vegan for a bit of my animal flesh and then you said you will stop wearing fur coats? How dare you betray our bonding relationship for a pale face! Bella: Shoo, you foul beast! [Bella throws meat] [exit jacob] [Bella turns to Edward]

Friday, May 8, 2020

Prayer In Schools Has Been A Much Talked About Debate In

Prayer in schools has been a much talked about debate in America over the past half-century. Conservatives, trying to regulate the religious freedoms of Americans , have tried numerous times to pass amendments that allow private student-led prayer in the classrooms(Baik, 243). Liberals, realizing that private prayer is and has always been legal, try to keep the balance between church-state separation as it is. This has kept the political issue of religion at a boil and confused many people on the actual issue of coercive school prayer. The banning of school praying is a major assurance of individual freedom and must be cultivated. The United States has long been divided on the issue of prayer in school. From the very beginning our†¦show more content†¦Schempp , the Court ruled that there could be no teacher-led mandatory prayer in a public classroom. Later, in Engle v. Vitale, it expanded its ruling to include devotionary Bible readings. It encouraged Bible readings, however, in comparative religion classes, and the study of how the Bible has affected history and literature in each of these classes. State Supreme Courts have made a few rulings on the constitutionality of student-led prayer at voluntary school events such as ballgames and graduation ceremonies, but there has been no national outline on what practices are legal and illegal. Also, moments of silence are currently under debate, with the court ruling usually hinging on whether or not the moment is implemented to encourage prayer(ACLU). There are many practical reasons why people argue for the integration of prayer into the curriculum of public schools. The most commonly cited reason for this is that children need the moral and ethical guidance that religion taught in the classroom will provide them. While almost everyone agrees that religious indoctrination is the responsibility of the parents, since many parents are seen as neglecting the duty to sufficiently teach their children, Christianity must be taught in public schools. Prayer in school helps build every child’s morality helping them to make the right decision and better choices, it gives them exposure to other religions and promotes tolerance and understanding. It also gives children chancesShow MoreRelatedReligion Should Be Non Existent But Society1675 Words   |  7 PagesReligion is one of the most controversial topics discussed amongst others. The debate on religion should be non-existent but society doesn’t allow us to have a diffe rence of opinion. The most discussed topic is always how the religion came to be. The conversation usually includes whether or not the religion was formed by a higher power or myths that have been passed down for generations. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Express and Courier Industry Free Essays

Global express and courier industry overview Introduction The primary business of the express industry is the delivery of time-sensitive shipments, typically with a transit time of two to three days. These are delivered mainly by air and ground. The industry has been witnessing significant growth as a result of the constant rise in demand for express and courier services over the last decade across user industries, including manufacturing, pharmaceutical, financial services and high-tech sectors. We will write a custom essay sample on Express and Courier Industry or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the last decade, the advent of e-commerce business models and their subsequent penetration along with increasing demand from the financial services sector contributed to strong industry growth. Most companies provide an additional range of activities besides pure transportation, including online tracking of shipments, online payment collection and insurance facilities. However, in recent times, the industry has witnessed a deceleration in growth as a result of rising fuel costs and reduced demand from user industries due to the global economic slowdown. Major players Traditionally, due to low demand and high costs of operation, the express industry has been dominated by national postal departments. While some of them still continue to be dominant in their respective national markets, others have evolved into larger regional and global players with multi-modal operations such as Deutsche Post World Net (which also operates DHL) and La Poste. Globally, the industry is dominated by the big four — Deutsche Post World Net (DHL), FedEx, United Postal Service (UPS) and TNT, all of which have strong multi-modal arms with worldwide operations. Key markets The US is the single largest market for express services, followed by Europe and the Asia–Pacific region. In recent years, the Asia-Pacific region has experienced tremendous growth, largely attributed to increased demand for express and courier services in China and India as well as sustained demand growth in Japan, Korea and Australia. Strong economic growth and increased international trade due to manufacturing outsourcing from the western countries has particularly resulted in the fast-growing demand for express and courier in India and China. Key challenges Rising fuel prices: Rising fuel costs have been the biggest concern of the express and courier industry globally over the past two years. Rising fuel costs have affected the industry directly via an increase in input costs and also indirectly by hampering growth prospects due to decreased demand from user industries. Environmental concerns: As part of the transport industry, the express industry has also come under renewed pressure from both environmental groups and governments to lower its carbon footprint. Environmental laws have necessitated increased usage of vehicles run on alternative fuel to transport and deliver shipments across the globe. DHL, UPS and FedEx have begun to deploy vehicles run on alternative fuel for deliveries and collection, especially in the mature US market. Outlook Over the past two years, the global express market has been reeling under the pressure of rising fuel and transportation costs and decrease in demand from the western countries. However, demand for express services is set to rise over the medium term with sustained growth of the Chinese and Indian economies. Over the longer term, the industry is expected to witness the emergence of large integrated players in the emerging markets of China and India. The market is expected to witness consolidation activities and a shift toward third-party logistics (3PL) and fourth-party logistics (4PL) players. How to cite Express and Courier Industry, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020


TELEMAKOS IN THE ILIAD BY HOMMER Essay A Homeric man can be defined as someone who journeys to different lands and is also skilled in battle and council. We have read the previous books in which Athena aids Telemakhos with his first step towards maturity. Book 18 offers us another view of his transformation from a boy to a man. Telemakhos conversations with the suitors and Penelope reveal his acknowledgement of his present situation and new responsibilities. The following will examine the ways in which Telemakhos actions and speech convey his growing into a man. When Athena enters the hall in Book 1 we are told that: Telemakhos was sitting there unhappy among the suitors, a boy, daydreaming(I.144-145) 1. This paints an image of a boy, who is incapable of controlling the suitors disrespect of his oikos. Since he was raised by his mother and lacked the guidance of a father, Telemakhos was forced to watch the suitors consume his cattle and wine, he has never known this Homeric man-hood, yet. We will write a custom essay on TELEMAKOS IN THE ILIAD BY HOMMER specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now In Book 18 this is not the case. Telemakhos, having traveled to the homes of Nestor and Menalaus, befriending a comrade and meeting his father has been exposed to the proper way in which a house hold is run. There is always one man in charge and that man sees to it that certain practices are maintained, such as xenia. This guest host relationship has been ignored in Odysseus halls. The suitors (the guests) have taken it upon themselves to play host as well. We see Telemakhos attempt to regain control in the following line: You have my word as host; (18.76). 2 These strong words follow Telemakhos promise to give the beggar a one on one fight with no worries about a suitor jumping in. In this instance he is letting the suitors know he is no longer that day dreaming boy (1.145) .3 As Odysseus accomplice, he has begun to command the suitors cooperation in carrying out his will. In his house the guests must obey his rules. Telemakhos speaks to Penelope about how he was young and blind (18.286) .4 He goes on to say that he knows the meaning of the suitors actions, both good and bad (18.285ff). 5 The insight he has gained from visiting with functioning communities is evident in these lines. Before Telemakhos left his motherland all he knew was the conduct that the suitors surrounded him with. This being so, he still sensed, that it was in fact vulgar behavior. We are told in Book 1 that when Mentes comes to the hall Telemakhos has a table set up away from the suitors so they wouldnt spoil Mentes appetite (163ff). 6 As a boy Telemakhos lacked the resources to correct the mayhem in his house so he remained a prisoner in his own home. He now knows that his house lacked a man willing to defend his oikos, and has accepted the challenge to do so. The suitors reckless behavior is no longer going to be tolerated. No longer young and blind, experience and Odysseus presence, have given Telemakhos the guile to establish his status as prince and killer. He will follow in Odysseus heroic path to man-hood and help to bring bloody death to the suitors eyes. Eurynome, a housekeeper, also points out Telemakhos physical maturity. She tells Penelope, already your son is of the age that you have most prayed to the gods to see him at, growing a beard (18.176-177). 7 Book 18 supplies the reader with hints of Telemakhos growing. His actions, speech, and looks are that of a Homeric man, on his way to gain the warrior status. Bibliography: